Наукове фахове видання

Філологічні науки

Kolesnyk V. 

Колесник В. ДО ПИТАННЯ ПРО КАРПАТО-БАЛКАНСЬКІ СХОДЖЕННЯ: НАЗВИ ОДЯГУ

У статті досліджено карпатоукраїнсько-болгарські лексичні подібності на матеріалі болгарських переселенських говірок Півдня України. Найбільшу кількість карпато-балканських сходжень зафіксовано в буковинських та гуцульських говірках. Дослідивши лише матеріали 6 букв «Словника буковинських говірок», знайдено понад 200 лексичних карпатизмів та балканізмів, які спостережені в болгарських переселенських говірках Півдня України. Значну частину карпатизмів та балканізмів складають назви одягу та прикрас: дулама, ентерия, жамка (джамка), киптар, яке, фес, басма, барес, гердан та ін.

Спостереження над буковинськими та гуцульськими діалектами показали, що в українських говірках Карпат у лексиці є низка елементів, які корелюють із балканськими. Матеріали словника буковинських і гуцульських говірок констатують наявні типові явища Балканського мовного союзу (БМС) в українських діалектах, принаймні тих, що безпосередньо сусідять з румунськими.

Ключові слова: карпатизми, балканізми, Балканський мовний союз, буковинські та болгарські говірки.

Kolesnyk V. On the сarpatho-balkan ascension: news of clothing

The article examines carpathoukrainian-bulgarian lexical similarities based on the Bulgarian resettlement dialects in the South of Ukraine. Most of the Carpatho-Balkan congenialitiesare fixed in Bukovyna and Hutsul dialects. Thus, having examined the 6 letters from «The Dictionary of dialects of Bukovyna», we have found more than 200 lexical karpatisms and balkanisms in the Bulgarian resettlement dialects in the South of Ukraine. A great part of karpatisms and balkanisms is represented by names of clothes and adornments, such as: dulama, enterya, dzhamka, kyptar, yake, fes, basma, bares, herdan, etc. They are mainly borrowings from Turkish:dulama, long working clothes with loose cut’, was recorded in Bukovina and Hutsul dialects (dulaman), and in the Bulgarian resettlement dialects of such villages as Tvardytsia and Suvorovo dulama means ‘man’s festive overclothes of home-made black or white cloth, short caftan’. 

 In Bukovyna dialects jacket is calledenterevus, in the Bulgarian dialect of the village of Krynychne enteriia is ‘a type of long-sleeved overclothes made of cloth’. In the dialects of the village of Horodnie anteriia is a type of short man’s clothing without a collar of home-made black or dark blue cloth with patterns. In the Bulgarian dialect less frequently represented lexeme is the name of the jacket,yake, which means ‘a man’s or woman’s jacket’, in Bukovyna dialects yaki is ‘a woman’s overclothes made of rough cloth’.

Sleeveless jacket has a variety of names in the Bulgarian resettlement dialects. One of them is zhamka/dzhamkawhich we fixed in the Balkan type dialects, particularly in the village of Yarove. The lexeme kyptar/keptar, ‘fur sleeveless jacket with ornamental pattern, was recorded in the Bukovyna, Hutsul and other 11 studied Bulgarian dialects. 

Among the names of the shawls, the most frequent lexemes are bares and basma: barysh, baras in the Bukovyna dialects, and in Bulgarian dialects bares, barez means ‘shawl made of thin fabric, and in some dialects bares is a ‘woollen white or yellow overshawl without ornamental patterns’. In the studied Bulgarian dialects,the lexeme basma is fixed in the following meanings: ‘printed cotton, cloth’, ‘handkerchief’, ‘shawl made of thin cloth’. In the dialects of Bukovyna it means ‘boy’s adornment, silken ribbon embroidered with glass beads’ and ‘silken scarf on the neck, muffler or shawl’.  Among the names for adornments, the most frequent lexeme in the Bulgarian and Ukrainian dialects is herdan.In these dialectsherdanmeans ‘type of maiden adornment, ribbon emroidered with glass beads’, zherdais ‘a necklace of ancient coins’.

Our research has showed that Ukrainian dialects of the Carpathians have a number of elements that correspond with the Balkan ones. Dictionary materials of Bukovyna and Hutsul dialects have indicated that there are typical phenomena of the Balkan linguistic union in the Ukrainian dialects, at least in those that directly adjoin Romanian dialects.

Key words: Carpathisms, Balkans, Balkan language union, Bukovinian and Bulgarian dialects.

Kolesnykov A.

Колесников А. ДИНАМІКА УКРАЇНСЬКИХ ПІВДЕННОБЕССАРАБСЬКИХ ГОВІРОК: ЗБЕРЕЖЕННЯ І РОЗВИТОК VS РЕДУКЦІЯ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИХ РИС В УМОВАХ МУЛЬТИЛІНГВІЗМУ

Стаття присвячена проблемі впливу на побутування українських південнобессарабських говірок, які розвиваються у полілінгвальному середовищі, двох векторів їх динаміки: з одного боку, збереження і розвитку, зумовленого стійкістю їхніх структур, з іншого, редукції діалектних і національних рис. Питання необхідності збереження цих говірок розв’язується в аспекті їхнього взаємозв’язку з літературним ідіомом загальнонародної мови, у зв’язку з локальною мовною ситуацією та мовною політикою. На думку автора, заходи, спрямовані на збереження аналізованих говірок, мають бути чіткими і невідкладними, вживатися на виконання Конституції України в руслі гармонізації мовної ситуації, адже розвиток однієї мови та збереження її говірок за умов мультилінгвізму не передбачає пригнічення інших.

Ключові слова: українська мова, новостворена говірка, полілінгвальний ареал, мовна ситуація, динаміка.

Kolesnykov A. Dynamics of the Ukrainian Southern Bessarabia dialects: preservation and development vs reduction of national features in conditions of multilingualism

The Ukrainian Southern Bessarabia dialects spread between the Danube and the Dniester rivers – resettlement communicative systems functioning in this multilingual area more than two hundred years. They have different origin (relation to mothers’ dialects), different character of interlingual and interdialect interaction, and varied dynamics. The general tendency of the development of all Ukrainian dialectal types of this region is adjusting to the West-Steppe Southern Bessarabia type. The important factor of dynamics is a literary standard which keeps and stimulates some changes in dialects. Besides the towns, the centers of literary wavesʼ irradiation are the dialects of a newer formation as literary language is a standard which is oriented on a native speaker, which is especially very different from literary language dialectal types or other dialectsʼ surroundings.

According to the degree of reduction the stable microsystems with low reduction, minimal level of dynamics and unstable ones with higher degree of reduction, considerable level of dynamics are selected. The latter is very sensitive to the ethnic language situation, language and educational politics in a region. Dialects of this type are widely represented among newer formation.

The article deals with the problem of influence of two vectors of dynamics on the existing of the Ukrainian Southern Bessarabia resettlement dialects, which develop in multilingual surroundings: by the one hand, preservation and development, which caused by stability of their structures, by other, reduction of their national and dialectal features. A question of necessity of preservation of these dialects is deciding with taking into consideration correlation with literary idiom of national language, local language situation and language politics. The author affirms the necessity of strict and urgent activity directed to preservation of these dialects according to Constitution of Ukraine and in the aspect of harmonization of language situation in this area, because a development of some language and preservation of its dialects in conditions of multilingualism doesn’t mean infringement of others.

Key words: the Ukrainian language, a resettlement dialect, multilingual area, language situation, dynamics.

 

Kobyrynka H.

Кобиринка Г. ОСОБЛИВОСТІ АКЦЕНТНОЇ СИСТЕМИ УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ НАДДУНАЙСЬКОЇ ГОВІРКИ (на матеріалі збірника діалектних текстів «Українська наддунайська говірка»)

У статті проаналізовано мовлення носіїв української наддунайської говірки с. Шевченкове Кілійського р-ну Одеської обл. Схарактеризовано найвиразніші акцентуаційні особливості південнобессарабської говірки, визначено тенденції наголошування змінних повнозначних частин мови. Дослідження акцентуації здійснено передусім через призму тенденцій наголошування, які функціонують в українських говірках і які, як свідчать лінгвогеографічні, дескриптивні дослідження, умовно поділяють український діалектний простір на два масиви – східний (чи київсько-поліський) і південно-західний (чи галицько-подільський).

Ключові слова: українські говірки, акцентуація, тенденцій наголошування, діалектний простір.

Kobyrynka G. Specific features of the accent system of the Ukrainian above Danube dialect (on the basis of the collection of dialectal texts «Ukrainian above Danube dialect»)

The Ukrainian language has distinct dialectal accent features that express the peculiarities of the dialectal division of our people language.

Despite the fact that today there is a large volume of information about the language system of Ukrainian dialects contained in the monographic descriptions, Atlas of the Ukrainian language and regional linguogeographic, lexicographical studies, collections of dialectal texts, but the heterogeneity and the disparity of these information both in the linguistic aspect and in the completeness of representation do not allow to evaluate the spatial distribution of trends and patterns of accentuation objectively in the dialect structures, to model the processes that caused them.

The study of the system of the Ukrainian dialects of the multilanguage area, namely the Dnister and Danube rivers area, is relevant, interesting and challenging. It is a special dialect continuum. The peculiarity is that these dialects function in a polyethnic region. This is an area of different structure dialects contact and genetically close and genetically distant languages (Ukrainian, Russian, Bulgarian, Romanian, Gagauz, Albanian, Romani (Gypsy) languages, and German was also used until the 1940’s). Studying this specific region the researchers noted that it was not a unit, therefore, the aim was to classify these dialects. In our opinion it would be interesting to trace which accent features are differential and which are integral in this classification. However, the format of the article does not allow solving the problem.

Our aim is to analyze the most distinct accent features of one dialect in this region – Shevchenkiv village, Kyiv region, Odessa oblast. This is a southern Bessarabian dialect of mixed type, in which according to the national composition of the population Ukrainians are dominate. Territorially speaking it borders with the dialects of the Romanian and Russian languages [Delusto 2016, p. 8].

The source of the research is the collection of dialectal texts by M. Delusto (Delusto M. The Ukrainian above Danube dialect) (Izmail, 2016. – 196 p.). Today the heuristic potential of dialectal texts, which is a linguistic portrait of dialect, is evident since it is the texts that illustrate the functioning of all structural levels of language, reflecting the real processes of dialectal speech. The analysis also involves A.O. Kolesnikov’s work “The Morphology of Ukrainian Dialects of the Dnister and the Danube area” (Kyiv, 2015).

The study of the accentuation of the southern Bessarabian dialect is made primarily in the context of accent tendencies, which function in the Ukrainian dialects and which according to linguogeographical, descriptive studies, divide the Ukrainian dialectal space into two parts – eastern and western.

As a result of the study of accent regularities of the southern Bessarabian dialect, it became clear that in this one dialect, as in the vast majority of Ukrainian dialects, the accent is free and varied. Verbal accent can be stationary and moving. Each part of the language has its own features of accent.

There is a tendency to emphasize the ending in noun plural forms(кирни׀ц’іў, но׀гей, сп˙ідни׀ц’іў; ложш׀ками; на бомажш׀ках, в йуп׀ках, у спʼідни׀цʼах) and in verb forms(׀кажу, с׀кажу, ׀жили, ׀зайде).

Key words: Ukrainian dialects, accentuation, tendencies of accentuation, dialectal space.

 

Verbych N.

Вербич Н. ІНТОНАЦІЯ ЯК КОМПОНЕНТ ДІАЛЕКТНОГО ТЕКСТУ

Інтонація – сукупність звукових мовних засобів, завдяки яким передається смисловий, емоційно-експресивний і модальний характер фрази, комунікативне значення та ситуативна зумовленість, стилістичне забарвлення тексту. У статті на підставі наявних експериментально-фонетичних студій, з’ясовано, наскільки важливим є інтонація як компонент діалектного тексту та встановлено відмінності в інтонаційному оформленні усної оповіді у представників різних діалектів.

Ключові слова: діалектне мовлення, інтонація, контур, термінальний тон, темп, пауза.

Verbych N. Intonation as a component of dialectal text

Intonation is a collection of sound linguistic means that are used to express semantic, emotional, expressive and modal character of the phrase, communicative meaning and situational conditionality, stylistic color of the text and the individuality of dialect speakers’ expressive techniques. Unfortunately Ukrainian dialect intonation is virtually out of linguists’ attention due to the difficulty of qualitative materials selecting for analysis and the uneasy procedure of experimental phonetic research. At the same time the usual comparison of dialect records shows the differences in their sound design.

In the article on the basis of available experimental phonetic studies it is revealed the importance of intonation as a component of dialect text and differences in the intonation design of different dialects speakes’ oral monologue.

The main parameter of phrase intonation is the increasing and decreasing of the tone in different parts of syntagma. The peculiarities of pitch changes in different parts of the intonation contour are identified. Interesting features of the rising-falling intonation contour are found out. The article describes the types of final and non-final syntagmas intonation contour. Тhe difference in the terminal tone design in different dialects is determined.

The time parameter is the main prosodic characteristic of the oral text. The implementation of both segmental and super-segment units is impossible without taking into account the temp of speech. On the separate checking of the thesis about the difference between different dialects temp is paid attention. It is srtessed that a significant component of the phrase intonational design is a pause.

The author concludes that the analysis of dialect intonation can both fill Ukrainian dialectology by new data about phonetic features of a particular dialect, outline possible areals where certain prosody features can be revealed brightly and become the basis for solving a number of common problems that are relevant for modern experimental phonetic research.

Key words: dialectal speech, intonation, contour, terminal tone, temp, pause.

 

Tkachuk M.

Ткачук М. ПЕРЕСЕЛЕНСЬКА ГОВІРКА С. ЗОЛОТОНОШКА
В ПОЛІДІАЛЕКТНОМУ ТА ПОЛІКУЛЬТУРНОМУ СЕРЕДОВИЩІ
(фонетичні особливості)

Статтю присвячено аналізу мовлення носіїв української переселенської говірки с. Золотоношка Стерлітамакського району Республіки Башкортостан РФ. Схарактеризовано діалектну основу говірки й докладно проаналізовано її фонетичні особливості (вокалізму й консонантизму) з увагою до материнських говірок. Виявлено динаміку й асимілятивні процеси в говірці та обґрунтовано їх причини.

Ключові слова: українські переселенські говірки, фонетичні риси говірки, динаміка говірки.

Tkachuk M. The Ukrainian resettled dialect of Zolotonoshka village in the multidialectal and multicultural Environment (Phonetic Features)

The study of the Ukrainian dialects outside Ukraine is a topical issue of modern dialectology that today has become a hot button because of known geopolitical circumstances. The Ukrainian dialects on the territory of Bashkortostan have been functioning since about the end of the nineteenth century when mass migrations of population to the Peredurallia, Siberia and the Far East began but they have not been fully studied linguistically. The source of this study is recorded in 2012 dialect speakers’ speech of the Ukrainian resettled dialect of Zolotonoshka village, Sterlitamak region, Bashkir Republic, Russian Federation, where Ukrainians live in a compact place.

The purpose of our research is to characterize the dialectal basis of the resettled dialect, to determine its phonetic peculiarities in multidialectal and multicultural environment and to identify the directions of dialect dynamics.

The majority of Zolotonoshka population consists of the South-Eastern Ukrainian dialects speakers, namely the Middle Dnipro dialects, which are the ancient formation dialects. The comparison with the initial, maternal basis is decisive for the description of the resettled dialect. Therefore, the available materials about the Middle Dnipro dialects, primarily the corpora of dialectal texts and the «Atlas of the Ukrainian Language» have been used for the comparative analysis.

The older and middle generations of dialect speakers in Bashkortostan did not study the Ukrainian language at school, their access to the Ukrainian literature and mass media is limited or even completely absent and therefore, we can both say that the literary Ukrainian language has the minimal impact on their speech and reveal the preservation of dialectal features. This peculiarity affects the individual style of dialect speakers of the resettled dialects in Bashkortostan.

The article analyses both the features of vowel system and consonant phenomena (such as full or partial shift of unaccented [е] > [и] and higher utility of phoneme /и/; the shift of the unaccented (but sometimes accented as well) [і] > [е], [и]; occasional substitution /о/ → /а/; the preservation of articulation of non-syllabic vowels [ў], [ĭ] and also alveolar [л̇] in different positions; the consonant devocalization at the end of syllable or word; primary palatalized pronunciation of hushing sounds, and others).

The speech of older dialectal speakers mainly preserves original linguistic features of maternal dialects, but surely, the dynamics of different language levels (with special attention to phonetics) are also revealed. The manifestation of phonetic features can be variational, even on the level of one dialect speaker’s speech. The causes of such peculiarity are the influence of multidialectal environment and various system contacts.

Key words: Ukrainian resettled dialects, phonetic features of dialect, dynamics of dialect.

 

Koliesnik L.

Колєснік Л. ІЗ СПОСТЕРЕЖЕНЬ НАД ХАРАКТЕРОЛОГІЧНОЮ ЛЕКСИКОЮ ГУЦУЛЬСЬКИХ ГОВІРОК ПУТИЛЬЩИНИ

У статті представлено спостереження автора над характерологічною лексикою гуцульських говірок Путильського р-ну Чернівецької обл. Простежено зв’язок зафіксованих оцінних номенів із суміжними (покутсько-буковинськими) та іншими (наддністрянськими, бойківськими, закарпатськими) несуміжними говірками південно-західного ареалу. Відзначено спільність тенденцій у гуцульських і покутсько-буковинських говірках в оцінній номінації, зокрема щодо вибору мотивації назв та способів називання. Виявлено специфічні семантичні явища, поширені в досліджуваному локусі. Проаналізовано низку лексем із затемненою мотивацією. Окреслено перспективи наступних досліджень.

Ключові слова: характерологічний номен, оцінна номінація, гуцульські говірки, мотивація, спосіб номінації.

Koliesnik L. From observations on the characterological vocabulary of Hutsul dialects of Putylsky district

Introduction. While preserving the common Hutsul traits, the area of Hutsul dialects distribution is not homogeneous. It is said about its binomial division (into the eastern and western parts) or about the tripartite division into the area with the centers within Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi and Transcarpathian regions.

Within the Chernivtsi region, there are two Hutsul administrative districts – Putylsky and part of Vizhnitskiy.

The Hutsul dialects retained their linguistic and cultural unity with Bukovina, Pokuttia and Dniester dialects.

Purpose. The existence of several dictionaries of Hutsul dialects does not depreciate the relevance of their research, insofar as the unique cultural and linguistic phenomena preserved in this territory are subject to the inevitable changes. This necessitates their research, recording the dialect vocabulary of various lexical sets, writing a vast textual data that not only emphasize the functional aspect of vocabulary, but also allows one to analyze the features and dynamics of dialects at all language levels.

Methods. The method of dialectology survey is fundamental to the study. The linguistic analysis on the characterological lexicon was realizedby the comparative and descriptive metods. The author draws on the materials of dialect dictionaries also.

Results. Characterological lexicon of this area is distinguished by the same phenomena as in other territories, for example the use of a single lexical item to denote a wide range of related concepts, the predominance of negatively evaluative naming over positively evaluative etc. Speakers qualify negatively evaluative names using the resources of their own dialect.

Many names are common for Hutsul and Bukovina-Pokuttia dialects and differ only in phonetic appearance.

Some of the identified names are typical for the entire western-Ukrainian region: оhаb|lenyj – ‘ugly’, о|fеrma – ‘bad person’, kal’y|hаtyj – ‘portly’. A number of nomens, common for the Bukovina-Pokuttia dialects and the studied Hutsul dialects, have distinctions in semantics.

Most of the recorded lexical items are motivated, formed according to the traditional motivational models: a comparison of a person, their features and properties with animals or objects. Such names are expressively evaluative, mostly negatively characterizing an individual.

In the Hutsul dialects of Putyla, some peculiar semantic processes (in comparison with the Bukovina-Pokuttia dialects) have been discovered, namely the circulation or absence of certain names in dialects is due to extra-linguistic factors.

The methods of naming in the Hutsul dialects considered are as follows: single-word / polycomponent; primary / secondary; comparison that emphasizes the evaluation. The singularity of linguistic resources is often due to the main activities of Hutsuls, e.g. hay harvesting: оstry|wа – ‘a tall thin person’ (оstrywа – ‘the top of a tree used in hay stacking’).

Originality. The unmotivated words are not fixed in lexicographic sources and their etymology requires clarification. Thеsе nomens enrich the vocabulary of Hutsul dialects.

Conclusion. Accordingly, observations on the characterological vocabulary of Hutsul dialects have shown their close connection with the adjacent dialects, including Bukovina-Pokuttia, and revealed interesting language facts, in particular on the semantics and motivation of some names. The deepening of their linguistic analysis constitutes the perspective of the following study.

Key words: characterological nomen, evaluative naming, Hutsul dialects, motivation, methods of naming.

 

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